Photon cannons require a link to the psionic matrix generated by pylons. Although the protoss revel in the glory of personal combat, they also recognize the need for automated defenses. As such, the cannon fires an encapsulated antimatter sphere similar to that generated by the dragoon, which can target air and ground targets. Inexpensive and easy to deploy, photon cannons are often installed at the entrances to protoss encampments, or overlooking psi-powered checkpoints. Photon cannons aren't rapid-fire weapons, so they're not as effective against massed foes. A marine rifle company or a pack of zerglings can easily work its way through a protoss station, picking off cannons one by one.
Experiments were done with integrating photon cannons with warp technology, however these experiments widely ended in failure.
Tal'darim are known for secretly constructing cannons behind the mining operations of the enemies. The Ihan-rii modeled the phase disruptors on their cannons after an avian creature once native to Tyrador IX, before it was hunted to extinction by terran settlers.
All protoss commanders are able to construct photon cannons in Co-op Missions. Karax is able to upgrade his photon cannons upon reaching level 6 and warp them in instantly once he reaches Level 11. Zeratul gains a variant named the tesseract cannon.
The photon cannon initially structuraly resembled its predecessor, retaining its 'telescope'. It was replaced by the phase cannon early in the development of StarCraft II. It has since returned in name and ability, although uses the phase cannon's model.